- Anna Brix Thomsen
Education Principles and Practices: The Reggio Emilia Approach: DAY 11
In and from this post we are going to discuss specific education principles and practices and we will discuss and investigate whether and how these are contributing to creating a society that is best for all or not. With ‘best for all’ I am referring to a society and a world community where the best interest of all – including the earth and the animals – is considered and applied at an educational and political level.
In this particular post I’ll briefly introduce a specific educational philosophy called “Reggio Emilia”. It is particularly applied and used here in Scandinavia (I’ve yet to investigate its influence in other parts of the world.) as an educational method and principle.
The reason why I’ve decided to write about the Reggio Emilia approach is because one of the schools that I frequent as a teacher is a Reggio Emilia school. I did not know that when I first started, so when I came to the school I was quite intrigued by how the school looked and was set up – especially compared to all the other schools I go to. Most of the schools I go to are public schools – some older, others newer. The old ones are often quite beat down barrack-type houses with long corridors and a distinct smell of gym sweat. (There’s no smell of chalk anymore because most schools in Sweden now use either white boards or smart boards.) The new schools are bright and minimalistic decorated.
The Reggio Emilia school first and foremost stands out because it resides on the country side in a huge bright white mansion type house that I’m sure has previously been some kind of nobility residence. I’m sure not all Reggio Emilia schools look like this. When I first walked through the door to the school what stood out the most is the fact that there is art EVERYWHERE, art meaning art made by the children. The school can appear quite messy because on all the walls and ceilings there are papier-mâché animals and models and paintings and other projects done by the children. Now – to me, it was more a familiar sense of recognition as I attended a similar type of schools myself as a child.
The other prominent difference between the Reggio Emilia School and other schools that I noticed was how children and adults communicate differently. What I’ve noticed is that there is a form of equality that there isn’t at other schools. The teachers and children speak and communicate with each other in ‘respect’ and very familiarly. This obviously also comes more easily in a smaller school – but it is not only that one can feel that they know each other – it is literally a form of respect from the adults to the children that reflects back the other way around in a form of ‘equal’ communication between the two. I’ve not seen that in any other schools. Ever. And I am quite sure that this is not because the teachers that work at this school are particularly awesome but because they are doing their job based on a principle they’ve agreed to when they got the position or that they at the very least agree to it and understand its ramifications.
As such a community is created that focuses on creativity, respect and expression which can be directly seen in how the children communicate and express themselves differently than other children. In many other schools children are either apathetic, rebellious or overachievers. But these kids do to some extent seem more balanced. Their primary focus seems to be learning and exploring and developing themselves. And the question is if that is not what education is about in the first place?
Now – I’ve never studied Reggio Emilia, in practice or theory beyond what I’ve written about here. So what I will do in the following post is to dive deeper into the philosophy and methodology and investigate what it is Reggio Emilia can do that other education strategies cannot and whether this can be used in the context of creating a world that is best for all, based on the principle of “take what is good and leave the rest.”
I reccomend watching the video series I’ve been doing on the Equal Money Wiki YouTube channel together with Marlen Vargas Del Razo and Yogan Barrientos. Here we discuss more in detail the point of Equal Money and Education.
Until then – here is Wikipedia’s section on Reggio Emilia for those interested in reading more:
Contents • 1 History • 2 Philosophy • 3 Community support and parental involvement • 4 The role of teachers o 4.1 Documentation • 5 The role of the environment o 5.1 The Environment as a third Teacher • 6 Long-term projects as vehicles for learning • 7 The hundred languages of children • 8 Conclusion • 9 See also • 10 References • 11 Further reading • 12 External links
History During the post-World War II era, a “…desire to bring change and create a new, more just world, free from oppression, was urging women and men to gather their strength and build with their own hands schools for their young children.” With this in mind, a group of committed parents, educators, and children in Reggio Emilia, Italy began a movement to create a system of infant, toddler, and preschool centers. Under the leadership of founding director and educator, Loris Malaguzzi (1920-1994), they developed a philosophy that was influenced by the surrounding culture and based on a unique view of the child. In addition to the influence of many early childhood psychologists and philosophers, such as Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, Gardner and Bruner, the educators of Reggio Emilia were inspired by their community-centered culture.
Throughout the years the Reggio Emilia approach has been constantly evolving and growing. In the late 1960’s the schools were transferred to the city government for operation and financing. On May 24, 1994, the non-profit organization, Friends of Reggio Children International Association was founded to promote the work of Loris Malaguzzi and organize professional development and cultural events. In November 2002, during the annual conference of the National Association for the Education of Young Children in Chicago the North American Reggio Emilia Alliance was formally launched as an organization. In February 2006, the Loris Malaguzzi International Centre opened. It is a dedicated meeting place in Reggio Emilia, Italy for professional development and research of the philosophy. The non-profit Reggio Children-Loris Malaguzzi Centre Foundation was officially established on September 29, 2011 at the Loris Malaguzzi International Centre of Reggio Emilia with the aim of “Education and research to improve the lives of people and communities, in Reggio Emilia and in the world”.
Philosophy The city Reggio Emilia in Italy is recognized worldwide for its innovative approach to education. Its signature educational philosophy has become known as the Reggio Emilia Approach, one which many preschool programs around the world have adopted. The Reggio Emilia philosophy is based upon the following set of principles: • Children must have some control over the direction of their learning; • Children must be able to learn through experiences of touching, moving, listening, seeing, and hearing; • Children have a relationship with other children and with material items in the world that children must be allowed to explore and • Children must have endless ways and opportunities to express themselves.
The Reggio Emilia approach to teaching young children puts the natural development of children as well as the close relationships that they share with their environment at the center of its philosophy. The foundation of the Reggio Emilia approach lies in its unique view of the child. In this approach, there is a belief that children have rights and should be given opportunities to develop their potential. “Influenced by this belief, the child is beheld as beautiful, powerful, competent, creative, curious, and full of potential and ambitious desires.” The child is also viewed as being an active constructor of knowledge. Rather than being seen as the target of instruction, children are seen as having the active role of an apprentice. This role also extends to that of a researcher. Much of the instruction at Reggio Emilia schools takes place in the form of projects where they have opportunities to explore, observe, hypothesize, question, and discuss to clarify their understanding. Children are also viewed as social beings and a focus is made on the child in relation to other children, the family, the teachers, and the community rather than on each child in isolation.
Community support and parental involvement Reggio Emilia’s tradition of community support for families with young children expands on a view, more strongly held in Emilia Romagna and Tuscany, of children as the collective responsibility of the local community. In Reggio Emilia, the infant/toddler and pre-primary program is a vital part of the community, as reflected in the high level of financial support. Community involvement is also apparent in citizen membership in La Consulta, a school committee that exerts significant influence over local government policy.
Parents are a vital component to the Reggio Emilia philosophy. Parents are viewed as partners, collaborators and advocates for their children. Teachers respect parents as each child’s first teacher and involve parents in every aspect of the curriculum. It is not uncommon to see parents volunteering within Reggio Emilia classrooms throughout the school. This philosophy does not end when the child leaves the classroom. Most parents who choose to send their children to a Reggio Emilia program incorporate many of the principles within their parenting and home life. Even with this bridge between school and home, many people wonder what happens to Reggio children when they make the transition from this style of education to a non Reggio Emilia school. The answer is that there is some adjustment that must take place. In most school environments, intellectual curiosity is rewarded, so students continue to reap the benefits of Reggio after they’ve left the program. The parents’ role mirrors the community’s, at both the schoolwide and the classroom level. Parents are expected to take part in discussions about school policy, child development concerns, and curriculum planning and evaluation. Because a majority of parents—including mothers—are employed, meetings are held in the evenings so that all who wish to participate can do so. Parents have to support their children in whatever choice they like.
The role of teachers In the Reggio approach, the teacher is considered a co-learner and collaborator with the child and not just an instructor. Teachers are encouraged to facilitate the child’s learning by planning activities and lessons based on the child’s interests, asking questions to further understanding, and actively engaging in the activities alongside the child, instead of sitting back and observing the child learning. “As partner to the child, the teacher is inside the learning situation” (Hewett, 2001).
Some implementations of the Reggio Emilia approach self-consciously juxtapose their conception of the teacher as autonomous colearner with other approaches. For example: Teachers’ long-term commitment to enhancing their understanding of children is at the crux of the Reggio Emilia approach. Their resistance to the American use of the term model to describe their program reflects the continuing evolution of their ideas and practices. They compensate for the meager preservice training of Italian early childhood teachers by providing extensive staff development opportunities, with goals determined by the teachers themselves. Teacher autonomy is evident in the absence of teacher manuals, curriculum guides, or achievement tests. The lack of externally imposed mandates is joined by the imperative that teachers become skilled observers of children in order to inform their curriculum planning and implementation.
While working on projects with the child, the teacher can also expand the child’s learning by collecting data that can be reviewed at a later time. The teacher needs to maintain an active, mutual participation in the activity to help ensure that the child is clearly understanding what is being “taught”.
Documentation Using a variety of media, teachers give careful attention to the documentation and presentation of the thinking of the children. Rather than making judgments about the child, the teacher inquires and listens closely to the children. An example of documentation might be a book or panel with the student’s words, drawings, and photographs. By making learning visible, the teachers accomplish several things. They are able to study the thinking and feeling of the students in order to gain insight into their understanding. Also, the documentation serves to help the teacher and other educators to evaluate their own work and refine the curriculum accordingly. And finally, it gives parents information regarding their child’s learning experience while creating an archive for the class and school.
Other supportive elements of the environment include ample space for supplies, frequently rearranged to draw attention to their aesthetic features. In each classroom there are studio spaces in the form of a large, centrally located atelier and a smaller mini-atelier, and clearly designated spaces for large- and small-group activities. Throughout the school, there is an effort to create opportunities for children to interact. Thus, the single dress-up area is in the center piazza; classrooms are connected with telephones, passageways or windows; and lunchrooms and bathrooms are designed to encourage community.
Groups of children will stay with one particular teacher for a three-year period, creating consistency and an environment where there are no added pressures from having to form new relationships. Long-term projects as vehicles for learning
The curriculum is characterized by many features advocated by contemporary research on young children, including real-life problem-solving among peers, with numerous opportunities for creative thinking and exploration. Teachers often work on projects with small groups of children, while the rest of the class engages in a wide variety of self-selected activities typical of preschool classrooms. The projects that teachers and children engage in are different in a number of ways from those that characterize American teachers’ conceptions of unit or thematic studies. The topic of investigation may derive directly from teacher observations of children’s spontaneous play and exploration. Project topics are also selected on the basis of an academic curiosity or social concern on the part of teachers or parents, or serendipitous events that direct the attention of the children and teachers. Reggio teachers place a high value on their ability to improvise and respond to children’s predisposition to enjoy the unexpected. Regardless of their origins, successful projects are those that generate a sufficient amount of interest and uncertainty to provoke children’s creative thinking and problem-solving and are open to different avenues of exploration. Because curriculum decisions are based on developmental and sociocultural concerns, small groups of children of varying abilities and interests, including those with special needs, work together on projects.
Projects begin with teachers observing and questioning children about the topic of interest. Based on children’s responses, teachers introduce materials, questions, and opportunities that provoke children to further explore the topic. While some of these teacher provocations are anticipated, projects often move in unanticipated directions as a result of problems children identify. Thus, curriculum planning and implementation revolve around open-ended and often long-term projects that are based on the reciprocal nature of teacher-directed and child-initiated activity. All of the topics of interest are given by the children. Within the project approach, children are given opportunities to make connections between prior and new knowledge while engaging in authentic tasks…
The hundred languages of children The term “hundred languages of children” refers to the many ways that children have of expressing themselves. Reggio teachers provide children different avenues for thinking, revising, constructing, negotiating, developing and symbolically expressing their thoughts and feelings. The goal is for the adults and children to better understand one another.
As children proceed in an investigation, generating and testing their hypotheses, they are encouraged to depict their understanding through one of many symbolic languages, including drawing, sculpture, dramatic play, and writing. They work together toward the resolution of problems that arise. Teachers facilitate and then observe debates regarding the extent to which a child’s drawing or other form of representation lives up to the expressed intent. Revision of drawings (and ideas) is encouraged, and teachers allow children to repeat activities and modify each other’s work in the collective aim of better understanding the topic. Teachers foster children’s involvement in the processes of exploration and evaluation, acknowledging the importance of their evolving products as vehicles for exchange.
Conclusion Reggio Emilia’s approach to early education reflects a theoretical kinship with John Dewey, Jean Piaget, Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner, among others. Much of what occurs in the class reflects a constructivist approach to early education. Reggio Emilia’s approach does challenge some conceptions of teacher competence and developmentally appropriate practice. For example, teachers in Reggio Emilia assert the importance of being confused as a contributor to learning; thus a major teaching strategy is purposely to allow mistakes to happen, or to begin a project with no clear sense of where it might end. Another characteristic that is counter to the beliefs of many Western educators is the importance of the child’s ability to negotiate in the peer group.
One of the most challenging aspects of the Reggio Emilia approach is the solicitation of multiple points of view regarding children’s needs, interests, and abilities, and the concurrent faith in parents, teachers, and children to contribute in meaningful ways to the determination of school experiences. Teachers trust themselves to respond appropriately to children’s ideas and interests, they trust children to be interested in things worth knowing about, and they trust parents to be informed and productive members of a cooperative educational team. The result is an atmosphere of community and collaboration that is developmentally appropriate for adults and children alike.
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